# Bind native function

pkpy allows to wrap a function pointer as a python function or method that can be called in python code. This function pointer has the following signature:

typedef PyObject* (*NativeFuncC)(VM*, ArgsView);
  • The first argument is the pointer of VM instance.
  • The second argument is an array-like object indicates the arguments list. You can use [] operator to get the element.
  • The return value is a PyObject*, which should not be nullptr. If there is no return value, return vm->None.

# Bind a function

Assume you have a cpp function bool equals(int a, int b).

bool equals(int a, int b){
    return a == b;

You can bind it into test.equals by using vm->bind_func<ARGC>:

PyObject* obj = vm->new_module("test");

//                     v [function name]
vm->bind_func<2>(obj, "equals", [](VM* vm, ArgsView args){
//            ^ argument count
    int a = CAST(int, args[0]);
    int b = CAST(int, args[1]);
    bool result = equals(a, b);
    return VAR(result);
  • The first argument is the target object to bind. It can be any python object with an instance dict, such as a module, a class, or an instance.
  • The second argument is the function name.
  • The third argument is the function pointer. We often use lambda expression to wrap it. A non-capturing lambda expression can be converted to a function pointer.

The template argument ARGC is the argument count of the function. If the function is variadic, use -1 as the argument count.

The interpreter will ensure args.size() == ARGC and throws TypeError if not. For variadic functions, you need to check args.size() manually.

If you want to bind a function into builtins module, use vm->bind_builtin_func<ARGC> instead.

# Bind a constructor

The constructor of a class is a special function that returns an instance of the class. It corresponds to the __new__ magic method in python (not __init__).

vm->bind_constructor<3>(type, [](VM* vm, ArgsView args){
    float x = CAST_F(args[1]);
    float y = CAST_F(args[2]);
    return VAR(Vec2(x, y));

# Bind a method

The vm->bind_method<ARGC> usage is almost the same as vm->bind_func<ARGC>. The only difference is that ARGC in vm->bind_method<ARGC> does not include the self argument.

vm->bind_method<1>("int", "equals", [](VM* vm, ArgsView args){
    int self = CAST(int, args[0]);
    int other = CAST(int, args[1]);
    return VAR(self == other);

# Bind a magic method

For some magic methods, we provide specialized binding function. They do not take universal function pointer as argument. You need to provide the detailed Type object and the corresponding function pointer.

PyObject* __add__(PyObject* lhs, PyObject* rhs){
    int a = CAST(int, lhs);
    int b = CAST(int, rhs);
    return VAR(a + b);

Type type = vm->tp_int;
vm->bind__add__(type, __add__);

This specialized binding function has optimizations and result in better performance when calling from python code.

For example, vm->bind__add__ is preferred over vm->bind_method<1>(type, "__add__", ...).

# Bind a property

a property is a python's property that attached to a type instance with a getter and an optional setter. It is a data descriptor. A property redirects attribute access to specific functions.

You can use @property to create python property or use vm->property to create native property.

struct Point {
  PY_CLASS(Point, test, Point);

  int x;
  int y;

  Point(int x, int y) : x(x), y(y) {}

  static void _register(VM *vm, auto mod, auto type) {
    vm->bind_constructor<3>(type, [](VM *vm, auto args) {
      auto x = CAST(i64, args[1]);
      auto y = CAST(i64, args[2]);
      return VAR_T(Point, x, y);

    // getter and setter of property `x`
    type->attr().set("x", vm->property([](VM* vm, ArgsView args){
        Point& self = CAST(Point&, args[0]);
        return VAR(self.x);
    [](VM* vm, ArgsView args){
        Point& self = CAST(Point&, args[0]);
        self.x = CAST(int, args[1]);
        return vm->None;